The table below gives the forces in daN (approximately the same as Kg) for different types of cylinders at different pressures. The force is always greater on the out-stroke of the cylinder due to the surface area on the in-stroke being reduced by the area of the diameter of the piston rod.
Payback is often less than 1 year due to labour saving, production increase, reduced HR.
Typically +40% due to: no holidays or breaks, forced takt time, longer working hours, faster speeds etc.
H&S claims reduced to zero as all manual handing is now done by the robotic palletiser.